Population growth, urbanization, forest colonization together with the industrialization of production processes have been influencing the increase in the generation of urban solid waste on a global, regional and local scale ; Tas¸kın and Demir, 2020).
The economic, environmental, social and cultural effects are evident, particularly due to the inadequate management of urban solid waste despite the evolution of science and technology The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a global challenge,
it has become increasingly prominent that hinders the harmonious and social development of any society, regarding the standards of living and environmental deterioration of the community that partly ignore the technical aspects and implementation costs, as well as residents’ attitudes, public environmental awareness, behavior and willingness to pay. While countries like China consider the classification of urban solid junk removal as one of the most important strategies for the construction of an ecological civilization
Various social programs are being implemented in various countries of the Region and the Caribbean to overcome poverty and reduce inequalities; however, they have not been working in the same dimension the state of urban waste, but are only left in clientelist discourses mixed with incentives and disincentives of labor supply.
in the regions of Peru and cities with more concentrated populations, there is an increasing production of urban waste. Whose causes, among others, come from the inefficiency of its authorities in the implementation of urban solid waste collection and treatment policies, which it intends to address .
Notwithstanding this, the development policies of the Peruvian Amazon in the construction of new highways, such as the transoceanic one, have been one of the main drivers of the transition from traditional diets to processed “Western” diets, which do not not only the habitus of the diet has changed, but also the generation of more waste due to the development of the Madre de Dios region, given that traditional foods such as Brazil nuts and fish are known to be essential micronutrients, people that are in a stage of nutritional transition to a Western diet may have a lower intake of selenium, but in exchange for the production of more plastic and other waste .
On the other hand, the Madre de Dios Region of Peru has one of the best potentialities in biological and cultural diversity, which in itself is a challenge to contribute to sustainable development and compliance with the 2030 agenda promoted by the UN To which should also be pointed out artisanal mining that embody vulnerability, even when they are recognized as stakeholders in formal policy processes, but have a great interest in their results, despite the imaginary of the rights of nature to coexist with the mining with the environment as a social right of good governance in favor of development.
However, a large part of the local population goes into the rivers every day to look for gold and return in the afternoon and with them they carry plastic waste that They leave on the way. Within the processes and facts of the aforementioned activity, the environmental approach is still scarce.
Under the indicated scenario, the Puno Region, although the benefits of biodiversity are addressed, it is not clear what are the consequences of the impact caused by deforestation and consequently the urban waste generated; given that a good part of the families depend on them, whether they are inside the forest or in the city of Puerto Maldonado. Despite the fact that, in theory, private companies try to reduce the deforestation of forest concessions due to pressure from fines or forestation incentives, which have not had the expected results due to insufficient rigor for sustainability commitments, and insufficiently punitive fines or low levels of execution. Of them,
Under the indicated scenario, the city of Puerto Maldonado, Tambopata province of the Madre de Dios Region with a population of 74,494 inhabitants with a demographic growth rate of 2.3% per year generates 80 to 90 tons of waste per day. The Municipality assumes the management of waste, its final disposal is the open-air dump and silo systems without emission control, carried out in the community “El Prado” located 6 km from the city of Puerto Maldonado.
Waste management is a complex issue of public policy, the widespread problems in urban and rural areas remain unresolved due to increased population growth and uneven economic growth They indirectly affect the inadequate collection, transport and final disposal of urban waste .
In addition to them, the persistence of the social structure system, the “socioeconomically poor” people are induced to carry out the collection tasks. Recycling work is considered a low-prestige and low-paid job. Municipal governments carry out USW management in an inefficient manner due to having scarce financial resources .
Therefore, the problems of MSW management in cities is an issue still pending real resolution .However, there are options and attributes that need to be agreed upon by the user public in order to facilitate viable economic valuation (Akhtar et al., 2017); therefore, the introduction of a strategy to improve waste management based on the public’s preferences to know the WTP (willingness to pay) in exchange for the generation of psychological, socioeconomic and educational well-being of the population. , can be modeled with the EE method -experiment of choice- (.The EE method is an application of Lancaster’s ‘features of value theory’ combined with ‘random utility theory’, therefore it has a solid foundation in economic theory.
Due to the aforementioned considerations, the objective of the study was to determine the preference of citizens in reducing, recycling, reusing, recovering (4R) and their willingness to pay (DAP) for the elimination of urban waste based on the classification level in the city of Puerto Maldonado, capital of the Tambopata Province of the Madre de Dios Region, Peru.