Acne Vulgaris: Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Acne Vulgaris: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Acne Vulgaris is a skin problem that arises when hair follicles plug in oil and dead skin cells. It causes whiteheads, blackheads, or pimples. Acne prevails most common among youngsters or minors, though there is no specific data for this as it impacts people of all generations.

Practical acne medications are functional, but acne can be continual. The pimples and bumps heal gradually, and when one commences going away, others seem to grow up.

Acne is a widespread skin problem where the pores of the skin come to be blocked by hair, sebum which is an oily substance, bacteria, and dead skin cells. These bottlenecks produce blackheads, whiteheads, nodules, and different types of spots. It’s the most familiar skin problem that people experience. According to estimates, 80 per cent of persons aged 11 to 30 years have at least a moderate type of acne, and acne affects countless people at some point in their lives.

The face, forehead, chest, shoulders, and upper back are the most typical areas where acne may appear. Oil glands are responsible for acne and these are more on those spots. One can treat acne only after knowing the stage of acne whether it is normal or serious acne. It might range from a modest to a severe level.

  • Mild acne indicates a few occasional pimples.
  • Moderate acne indicates inflammatory capsules.
  • Severe acne indicates nodules and cysts.  

Types of Acne Vulgaris

Acne can take several forms. They include:

  • Blackheads: These are the open swellings on the skin which are loaded with surplus oil and dead skin. It looks as if dirt has been inserted in the lumps, but the dark or musky spots are caused by an uneven sun reflection off the clogged follicle.
  • Whiteheads: These are the lumps that stay shut by oil and dead skin.
  • Papules: These are the tiny red-coloured or pink-coloured bumps that become inflamed. These are made up of an abundance of oils, bacteria, and dead skin cells.
  • Pustules: Pimples constituting pus. They look like whiteheads encircled by blushing rounds. It can cause damage if snatched or scraped. These are made up of pus, bacteria, dead skin, cells, and white blood cells.
  • Fungal acne: This acne is pityrosporum folliculitis. This type occurs when a surplus of yeast formulates in the hair follicles. They can come to be prickly and inflamed.
  • Nodules: These are strong swelling or spots that are intense in the skin. They are huge and unbearable. These occur in the situation, a pore bursts under the integument, and a lump arises on the surface.
  • Cysts: Cysts are the pus-filled swelling or spots. These spots can cause flaws.

Although these different forms of acne can influence self-esteem, it is recommended to pursue assistance from a healthcare provider ahead. They can assist with differentiation and the best treatment option/options available.  

It is important to know what is Acne vulgaris. It is the common form of acne, characterized by a mixed outbreak of provocative and non-inflammatory skin lesions. Acne is also known, pimples, spots, or zits.

Who gets acne vulgaris?

Nearly everyone has acne once in their lifetime. Acne is nondiscriminatory and influences all sexes and all races. Acne mainly influences adolescents, but it can influence a broad age span like:

  • Infantile acne
  • Acne in children
  • Adult acne

Clinical features of acne vulgaris

Acne most frequently influences the face, but it may circulate to pertain to the neck, chest, and back, and periodical just further extensively over the body.

Personal lessons are centred on the pilosebaceous unit, i.e. the hair follicle and its identical oil gland. Different types of acne spots occur, frequently at the equivalent period. Inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules, as well as non-inflamed comedones and pseudocysts, are common among them.

  • Superficial lesions: These are open and closed comedones (blackheads and whiteheads). It also includes small Papules, tender red bumps, and Pustules which are white or yellow “squeezable” spots
  • Deeper lesions: These include Nodules which is large painful red lumps and Pseudocysts which are cyst-like fluctuant swellings
  • Secondary lesions: These are excoriations i.e. picked or scratched spots. Erythematous macules are red marks from recently healed spots, best seen in fair skin, Pigmented macules are dark marks from old spots, mostly affecting those with dark skin are also secondary lesions.
  • Personal lesions: usually survive around two weeks but the deeper papules and nodules may prevail for months. Numerous acne patients also have oily skin which is called seborrhoea. Acne is common in youths and fresh adults.

In context, Acne Vulgaris is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease targeting the pilosebaceous unit. There are two types of lesions

  • non-inflammatory and
  • inflammatory.

In this, Comedones are special non-inflammatory lesions.

Pathogenesis is androgens or the male hormones that stimulate sebaceous glands which cause increased sebum production. The infundibulum of the hair gets hyperkeratinized. Bacterial infection takes place that is propionibacterium acnes. This finally leads to inflammation. Milk and milk products and other foods with high amounts of glucose are to be avoided. A cytokine Interleukin -1 is responsible for triggering inflammation in acne.

Hormonal acne is when there are hormone instabilities, it will lead to acne. The higher chance of this acne in women or girls is especially during the menstrual cycle. It occurs when there is a disbalance between estrogen and testosterone levels, which means, testosterone levels rise.

Grading of Acne Vulgaris

In Grade 1 Acne Vulgaris, comedones are predominant, which means open or black and closed or white.

In Grade 2 Acne Vulgaris, papules are predominant.

In Grade 3 Acne Vulgaris, pustules are predominant.

In Grade 4 Acne Vulgaris, the most severe type is Nodulocystic acne.

Causes of Acne Vulgaris

When the question arises like what causes Acne vulgaris, then, we can say it is caused by a combination of hormones, oil, and bacteria. During adolescence, androgen or the male hormones increase which leads to greater production of sebum which is an oily substance. Sebum is produced by sebaceous glands. Sebum and dead skin cells come out of the hair follicles through the pores on the skin. When these pores are clogged by sebum and skin cells, sebum can’t escape which causes acne. That is why regular face washing is advised to remove sebum secretions from the face.

As one enters early adulthood, those hormones may decrease enough that acne will start to disappear. For about 40% of women, acne may continue into their 40s because of hormonal changes and other causes, including:

  • Changes in hormones during pregnancy or throughout the menstrual period
  • Some medications
  • Certain cosmetics and lotions
  • High humidity and sweating
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

Acne treatment is determined by the patient’s age and gender, the degree and severity of the acne, the length of time it has been present, and the patient’s reaction to prior therapies. There are a number of websites that provide free pharmacy delivery, which may help you get the therapy you need while also saving your money.

  • Topical anti-acne treatments, lasers, and lights are all used to treat moderate acne.
  • Antibiotics, such as tetracyclines, and/or antiandrogens, such as birth control pills, are used to treat moderate acne.
  • A course of oral isotretinoin may be required to treat severe acne.

Treatment of acne in different Grades:

Please Note:

Topical includes gel-like cream or moisturizer whereas systemic includes capsules or tablets.

Retinoids include Vitamins for treatment

  • In Grade 1 Acne Vulgaris, Topical retinoids are beneficial for treatment. It includes

              a) Adapalene

              b) Tretinoin

  • In Grade 2 Acne Vulgaris, Topical retinoids and topical antibiotics are beneficial for treating acne which includes clindamycin or nadifloxacin.
  • In Grade 3 Acne Vulgaris, Topical retinoids and systemic antibodies are beneficial for treating acne including Azithromycin or doxycycline or minocycline.
  • In Grade 4 Acne Vulgaris, Oral retinoids are beneficial for treatment which includes isotretinoin.


It is advised to wash your face properly before going to bed and also whenever one comes back from a dusty environment, make sure to wash your hands and your face.

Washing your hands and not touching your face has its importance in the prevention of acne as in the maximum number of cases, the bacteria passes from your hands to your face.

It is also advised to reduce sugar in your diet and strict long term treatment for better results. Human bodies and immune systems are very complex, so one body may react to different medicines differently.


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